Command Line

To list available commands, either run docker with no parameters or execute docker help:

$ sudo docker
  Usage: docker [OPTIONS] COMMAND [arg...]
    -H, --host=[]: The socket(s) to bind to in daemon mode, specified using one or more tcp://host:port, unix:///path/to/socket, fd://* or fd://socketfd.

  A self-sufficient runtime for linux containers.

  ...

Option types

Single character commandline options can be combined, so rather than typing docker run -t -i --name test busybox sh, you can write docker run -ti --name test busybox sh.

Boolean

Boolean options look like -d=false. The value you see is the default value which gets set if you do not use the boolean flag. If you do call run -d, that sets the opposite boolean value, so in this case, true, and so docker run -d will run in "detached" mode, in the background. Other boolean options are similar – specifying them will set the value to the opposite of the default value.

Multi

Options like -a=[] indicate they can be specified multiple times:

$ docker run -a stdin -a stdout -a stderr -i -t ubuntu /bin/bash

Sometimes this can use a more complex value string, as for -v:

$ docker run -v /host:/container example/mysql

Strings and Integers

Options like --name="" expect a string, and they can only be specified once. Options like -c=0 expect an integer, and they can only be specified once.

daemon

Usage of docker:
  --api-enable-cors=false                    Enable CORS headers in the remote API
  -b, --bridge=""                            Attach containers to a pre-existing network bridge
                                               use 'none' to disable container networking
  --bip=""                                   Use this CIDR notation address for the network bridge's IP, not compatible with -b
  -D, --debug=false                          Enable debug mode
  -d, --daemon=false                         Enable daemon mode
  --dns=[]                                   Force Docker to use specific DNS servers
  --dns-search=[]                            Force Docker to use specific DNS search domains
  -e, --exec-driver="native"                 Force the Docker runtime to use a specific exec driver
  -G, --group="docker"                       Group to assign the unix socket specified by -H when running in daemon mode
                                               use '' (the empty string) to disable setting of a group
  -g, --graph="/var/lib/docker"              Path to use as the root of the Docker runtime
  -H, --host=[]                              The socket(s) to bind to in daemon mode
                                               specified using one or more tcp://host:port, unix:///path/to/socket, fd://* or fd://socketfd.
  --icc=true                                 Enable inter-container communication
  --ip=0.0.0.0                               Default IP address to use when binding container ports
  --ip-forward=true                          Enable net.ipv4.ip_forward
  --iptables=true                            Enable Docker's addition of iptables rules
  --mtu=0                                    Set the containers network MTU
                                               if no value is provided: default to the default route MTU or 1500 if no default route is available
  -p, --pidfile="/var/run/docker.pid"        Path to use for daemon PID file
  -s, --storage-driver=""                    Force the Docker runtime to use a specific storage driver
  --selinux-enabled=false                    Enable selinux support. SELinux does not presently support the BTRFS storage driver
  --storage-opt=[]                           Set storage driver options
  --tls=false                                Use TLS; implied by tls-verify flags
  --tlscacert="/home/sven/.docker/ca.pem"    Trust only remotes providing a certificate signed by the CA given here
  --tlscert="/home/sven/.docker/cert.pem"    Path to TLS certificate file
  --tlskey="/home/sven/.docker/key.pem"      Path to TLS key file
  --tlsverify=false                          Use TLS and verify the remote (daemon: verify client, client: verify daemon)
  -v, --version=false                        Print version information and quit

Options with [] may be specified multiple times.

The Docker daemon is the persistent process that manages containers. Docker uses the same binary for both the daemon and client. To run the daemon you provide the -d flag.

To force Docker to use devicemapper as the storage driver, use docker -d -s devicemapper.

To set the DNS server for all Docker containers, use docker -d --dns 8.8.8.8.

To set the DNS search domain for all Docker containers, use docker -d --dns-search example.com.

To run the daemon with debug output, use docker -d -D.

To use lxc as the execution driver, use docker -d -e lxc.

The docker client will also honor the DOCKER_HOST environment variable to set the -H flag for the client.

$ docker -H tcp://0.0.0.0:2375 ps
# or
$ export DOCKER_HOST="tcp://0.0.0.0:2375"
$ docker ps
# both are equal

To run the daemon with systemd socket activation, use docker -d -H fd://. Using fd:// will work perfectly for most setups but you can also specify individual sockets too docker -d -H fd://3. If the specified socket activated files aren't found then docker will exit. You can find examples of using systemd socket activation with docker and systemd in the docker source tree.

Docker supports softlinks for the Docker data directory (/var/lib/docker) and for /var/lib/docker/tmp. The DOCKER_TMPDIR and the data directory can be set like this:

DOCKER_TMPDIR=/mnt/disk2/tmp /usr/local/bin/docker -d -D -g /var/lib/docker -H unix:// > /var/lib/boot2docker/docker.log 2>&1
# or
export DOCKER_TMPDIR=/mnt/disk2/tmp
/usr/local/bin/docker -d -D -g /var/lib/docker -H unix:// > /var/lib/boot2docker/docker.log 2>&1

attach

Usage: docker attach [OPTIONS] CONTAINER

Attach to a running container

  --no-stdin=false    Do not attach STDIN
  --sig-proxy=true    Proxy all received signals to the process (even in non-TTY mode). SIGCHLD, SIGKILL, and SIGSTOP are not proxied.

The attach command will allow you to view or interact with any running container, detached (-d) or interactive (-i). You can attach to the same container at the same time - screen sharing style, or quickly view the progress of your daemonized process.

You can detach from the container again (and leave it running) with CTRL-C (for a quiet exit) or CTRL-\ to get a stacktrace of the Docker client when it quits. When you detach from the container's process the exit code will be returned to the client.

To stop a container, use docker stop.

To kill the container, use docker kill.

Examples:

$ ID=$(sudo docker run -d ubuntu /usr/bin/top -b)
$ sudo docker attach $ID
top - 02:05:52 up  3:05,  0 users,  load average: 0.01, 0.02, 0.05
Tasks:   1 total,   1 running,   0 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s):  0.1%us,  0.2%sy,  0.0%ni, 99.7%id,  0.0%wa,  0.0%hi,  0.0%si,  0.0%st
Mem:    373572k total,   355560k used,    18012k free,    27872k buffers
Swap:   786428k total,        0k used,   786428k free,   221740k cached

PID USER      PR  NI  VIRT  RES  SHR S %CPU %MEM    TIME+  COMMAND
 1 root      20   0 17200 1116  912 R    0  0.3   0:00.03 top

 top - 02:05:55 up  3:05,  0 users,  load average: 0.01, 0.02, 0.05
 Tasks:   1 total,   1 running,   0 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
 Cpu(s):  0.0%us,  0.2%sy,  0.0%ni, 99.8%id,  0.0%wa,  0.0%hi,  0.0%si,  0.0%st
 Mem:    373572k total,   355244k used,    18328k free,    27872k buffers
 Swap:   786428k total,        0k used,   786428k free,   221776k cached

   PID USER      PR  NI  VIRT  RES  SHR S %CPU %MEM    TIME+  COMMAND
       1 root      20   0 17208 1144  932 R    0  0.3   0:00.03 top


 top - 02:05:58 up  3:06,  0 users,  load average: 0.01, 0.02, 0.05
 Tasks:   1 total,   1 running,   0 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
 Cpu(s):  0.2%us,  0.3%sy,  0.0%ni, 99.5%id,  0.0%wa,  0.0%hi,  0.0%si,  0.0%st
 Mem:    373572k total,   355780k used,    17792k free,    27880k buffers
 Swap:   786428k total,        0k used,   786428k free,   221776k cached

 PID USER      PR  NI  VIRT  RES  SHR S %CPU %MEM    TIME+  COMMAND
      1 root      20   0 17208 1144  932 R    0  0.3   0:00.03 top
^C$
$ sudo docker stop $ID

build

Usage: docker build [OPTIONS] PATH | URL | -

Build a new image from the source code at PATH

  --force-rm=false     Always remove intermediate containers, even after unsuccessful builds
  --no-cache=false     Do not use cache when building the image
  -q, --quiet=false    Suppress the verbose output generated by the containers
  --rm=true            Remove intermediate containers after a successful build
  -t, --tag=""         Repository name (and optionally a tag) to be applied to the resulting image in case of success

Use this command to build Docker images from a Dockerfile and a "context".

The files at PATH or URL are called the "context" of the build. The build process may refer to any of the files in the context, for example when using an ADD instruction. When a single Dockerfile is given as URL or is piped through STDIN (docker build - < Dockerfile), then no context is set.

When a Git repository is set as URL, then the repository is used as the context. The Git repository is cloned with its submodules (git clone -recursive). A fresh git clone occurs in a temporary directory on your local host, and then this is sent to the Docker daemon as the context. This way, your local user credentials and VPN's etc can be used to access private repositories.

If a file named .dockerignore exists in the root of PATH then it is interpreted as a newline-separated list of exclusion patterns. Exclusion patterns match files or directories relative to PATH that will be excluded from the context. Globbing is done using Go's filepath.Match rules.

See also:

Dockerfile Reference.

Examples:

$ sudo docker build .
Uploading context 10240 bytes
Step 1 : FROM busybox
Pulling repository busybox
 ---> e9aa60c60128MB/2.284 MB (100%) endpoint: https://cdn-registry-1.docker.io/v1/
Step 2 : RUN ls -lh /
 ---> Running in 9c9e81692ae9
total 24
drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root        4.0K Mar 12  2013 bin
drwxr-xr-x    5 root     root        4.0K Oct 19 00:19 dev
drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root        4.0K Oct 19 00:19 etc
drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root        4.0K Nov 15 23:34 lib
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root           3 Mar 12  2013 lib64 -> lib
dr-xr-xr-x  116 root     root           0 Nov 15 23:34 proc
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root           3 Mar 12  2013 sbin -> bin
dr-xr-xr-x   13 root     root           0 Nov 15 23:34 sys
drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root        4.0K Mar 12  2013 tmp
drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root        4.0K Nov 15 23:34 usr
 ---> b35f4035db3f
Step 3 : CMD echo Hello world
 ---> Running in 02071fceb21b
 ---> f52f38b7823e
Successfully built f52f38b7823e
Removing intermediate container 9c9e81692ae9
Removing intermediate container 02071fceb21b

This example specifies that the PATH is ., and so all the files in the local directory get tard and sent to the Docker daemon. The PATH specifies where to find the files for the "context" of the build on the Docker daemon. Remember that the daemon could be running on a remote machine and that no parsing of the Dockerfile happens at the client side (where you're running docker build). That means that all the files at PATH get sent, not just the ones listed to ADD in the Dockerfile.

The transfer of context from the local machine to the Docker daemon is what the docker client means when you see the "Sending build context" message.

If you wish to keep the intermediate containers after the build is complete, you must use --rm=false. This does not affect the build cache.

$ docker build .
Uploading context 18.829 MB
Uploading context
Step 0 : FROM busybox
 ---> 769b9341d937
Step 1 : CMD echo Hello world
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 99cc1ad10469
Successfully built 99cc1ad10469
$ echo ".git" > .dockerignore
$ docker build .
Uploading context  6.76 MB
Uploading context
Step 0 : FROM busybox
 ---> 769b9341d937
Step 1 : CMD echo Hello world
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 99cc1ad10469
Successfully built 99cc1ad10469

This example shows the use of the .dockerignore file to exclude the .git directory from the context. Its effect can be seen in the changed size of the uploaded context.

$ sudo docker build -t vieux/apache:2.0 .

This will build like the previous example, but it will then tag the resulting image. The repository name will be vieux/apache and the tag will be 2.0

$ sudo docker build - < Dockerfile

This will read a Dockerfile from STDIN without context. Due to the lack of a context, no contents of any local directory will be sent to the Docker daemon. Since there is no context, a Dockerfile ADD only works if it refers to a remote URL.

$ sudo docker build - < context.tar.gz

This will build an image for a compressed context read from STDIN. Supported formats are: bzip2, gzip and xz.

$ sudo docker build github.com/creack/docker-firefox

This will clone the GitHub repository and use the cloned repository as context. The Dockerfile at the root of the repository is used as Dockerfile. Note that you can specify an arbitrary Git repository by using the git:// schema.

Note: docker build will return a no such file or directory error if the file or directory does not exist in the uploaded context. This may happen if there is no context, or if you specify a file that is elsewhere on the Host system. The context is limited to the current directory (and its children) for security reasons, and to ensure repeatable builds on remote Docker hosts. This is also the reason why ADD ../file will not work.

commit

Usage: docker commit [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]

Create a new image from a container's changes

  -a, --author=""     Author (e.g., "John Hannibal Smith <hannibal@a-team.com>")
  -m, --message=""    Commit message
  -p, --pause=true    Pause container during commit

It can be useful to commit a container's file changes or settings into a new image. This allows you debug a container by running an interactive shell, or to export a working dataset to another server. Generally, it is better to use Dockerfiles to manage your images in a documented and maintainable way.

By default, the container being committed and its processes will be paused while the image is committed. This reduces the likelihood of encountering data corruption during the process of creating the commit. If this behavior is undesired, set the 'p' option to false.

Commit an existing container

$ sudo docker ps
ID                  IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS
c3f279d17e0a        ubuntu:12.04        /bin/bash           7 days ago          Up 25 hours
197387f1b436        ubuntu:12.04        /bin/bash           7 days ago          Up 25 hours
$ docker commit c3f279d17e0a  SvenDowideit/testimage:version3
f5283438590d
$ docker images | head
REPOSITORY                        TAG                 ID                  CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
SvenDowideit/testimage            version3            f5283438590d        16 seconds ago      335.7 MB

cp

Copy files/folders from a container's filesystem to the host path. Paths are relative to the root of the filesystem.

Usage: docker cp CONTAINER:PATH HOSTPATH

Copy files/folders from the PATH to the HOSTPATH

diff

List the changed files and directories in a container᾿s filesystem

Usage: docker diff CONTAINER

Inspect changes on a container's filesystem

There are 3 events that are listed in the diff:

  1. A - Add
  2. D - Delete
  3. C - Change

For example:

$ sudo docker diff 7bb0e258aefe

C /dev
A /dev/kmsg
C /etc
A /etc/mtab
A /go
A /go/src
A /go/src/github.com
A /go/src/github.com/docker
A /go/src/github.com/docker/docker
A /go/src/github.com/docker/docker/.git
....

events

Usage: docker events [OPTIONS]

Get real time events from the server

  --since=""         Show all events created since timestamp
  --until=""         Stream events until this timestamp

Examples

You'll need two shells for this example.

Shell 1: Listening for events:

$ sudo docker events

Shell 2: Start and Stop a Container:

$ sudo docker start 4386fb97867d
$ sudo docker stop 4386fb97867d

Shell 1: (Again .. now showing events):

2014-05-10T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) start
2014-05-10T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) die
2014-05-10T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) stop

Show events in the past from a specified time:

$ sudo docker events --since 1378216169
2014-03-10T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) die
2014-03-10T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) stop

$ sudo docker events --since '2013-09-03'
2014-09-03T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) start
2014-09-03T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) die
2014-09-03T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) stop

$ sudo docker events --since '2013-09-03 15:49:29 +0200 CEST'
2014-09-03T15:49:29.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) die
2014-09-03T15:49:29.999999999Z07:00 4386fb97867d: (from 12de384bfb10) stop

export

Usage: docker export CONTAINER

Export the contents of a filesystem as a tar archive to STDOUT

For example:

$ sudo docker export red_panda > latest.tar

history

Usage: docker history [OPTIONS] IMAGE

Show the history of an image

  --no-trunc=false     Don't truncate output
  -q, --quiet=false    Only show numeric IDs

To see how the docker:latest image was built:

$ docker history docker
IMAGE                                                              CREATED             CREATED BY                                                                                                                                                 SIZE
3e23a5875458790b7a806f95f7ec0d0b2a5c1659bfc899c89f939f6d5b8f7094   8 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENV LC_ALL=C.UTF-8                                                                                                                       0 B
8578938dd17054dce7993d21de79e96a037400e8d28e15e7290fea4f65128a36   8 days ago          /bin/sh -c dpkg-reconfigure locales &&    locale-gen C.UTF-8 &&    /usr/sbin/update-locale LANG=C.UTF-8                                                    1.245 MB
be51b77efb42f67a5e96437b3e102f81e0a1399038f77bf28cea0ed23a65cf60   8 days ago          /bin/sh -c apt-get update && apt-get install -y    git    libxml2-dev    python    build-essential    make    gcc    python-dev    locales    python-pip   338.3 MB
4b137612be55ca69776c7f30c2d2dd0aa2e7d72059820abf3e25b629f887a084   6 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) ADD jessie.tar.xz in /                                                                                                                   121 MB
750d58736b4b6cc0f9a9abe8f258cef269e3e9dceced1146503522be9f985ada   6 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) MAINTAINER Tianon Gravi <admwiggin@gmail.com> - mkimage-debootstrap.sh -t jessie.tar.xz jessie http://http.debian.net/debian             0 B
511136ea3c5a64f264b78b5433614aec563103b4d4702f3ba7d4d2698e22c158   9 months ago                                                                                                                                                                   0 B

images

Usage: docker images [OPTIONS] [NAME]

List images

  -a, --all=false      Show all images (by default filter out the intermediate image layers)
  -f, --filter=[]      Provide filter values (i.e. 'dangling=true')
  --no-trunc=false     Don't truncate output
  -q, --quiet=false    Only show numeric IDs

The default docker images will show all top level images, their repository and tags, and their virtual size.

Docker images have intermediate layers that increase reusability, decrease disk usage, and speed up docker build by allowing each step to be cached. These intermediate layers are not shown by default.

Listing the most recently created images

$ sudo docker images | head
REPOSITORY                    TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
<none>                        <none>              77af4d6b9913        19 hours ago        1.089 GB
committest                    latest              b6fa739cedf5        19 hours ago        1.089 GB
<none>                        <none>              78a85c484f71        19 hours ago        1.089 GB
docker                        latest              30557a29d5ab        20 hours ago        1.089 GB
<none>                        <none>              0124422dd9f9        20 hours ago        1.089 GB
<none>                        <none>              18ad6fad3402        22 hours ago        1.082 GB
<none>                        <none>              f9f1e26352f0        23 hours ago        1.089 GB
tryout                        latest              2629d1fa0b81        23 hours ago        131.5 MB
<none>                        <none>              5ed6274db6ce        24 hours ago        1.089 GB

Listing the full length image IDs

$ sudo docker images --no-trunc | head
REPOSITORY                    TAG                 IMAGE ID                                                           CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
<none>                        <none>              77af4d6b9913e693e8d0b4b294fa62ade6054e6b2f1ffb617ac955dd63fb0182   19 hours ago        1.089 GB
committest                    latest              b6fa739cedf5ea12a620a439402b6004d057da800f91c7524b5086a5e4749c9f   19 hours ago        1.089 GB
<none>                        <none>              78a85c484f71509adeaace20e72e941f6bdd2b25b4c75da8693efd9f61a37921   19 hours ago        1.089 GB
docker                        latest              30557a29d5abc51e5f1d5b472e79b7e296f595abcf19fe6b9199dbbc809c6ff4   20 hours ago        1.089 GB
<none>                        <none>              0124422dd9f9cf7ef15c0617cda3931ee68346455441d66ab8bdc5b05e9fdce5   20 hours ago        1.089 GB
<none>                        <none>              18ad6fad340262ac2a636efd98a6d1f0ea775ae3d45240d3418466495a19a81b   22 hours ago        1.082 GB
<none>                        <none>              f9f1e26352f0a3ba6a0ff68167559f64f3e21ff7ada60366e2d44a04befd1d3a   23 hours ago        1.089 GB
tryout                        latest              2629d1fa0b81b222fca63371ca16cbf6a0772d07759ff80e8d1369b926940074   23 hours ago        131.5 MB
<none>                        <none>              5ed6274db6ceb2397844896966ea239290555e74ef307030ebb01ff91b1914df   24 hours ago        1.089 GB

Filtering

The filtering flag (-f or --filter) format is of "key=value". If there are more than one filter, then pass multiple flags (e.g., --filter "foo=bar" --filter "bif=baz")

Current filters: * dangling (boolean - true or false)

untagged images

$ sudo docker images --filter "dangling=true"

REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
<none>              <none>              8abc22fbb042        4 weeks ago         0 B
<none>              <none>              48e5f45168b9        4 weeks ago         2.489 MB
<none>              <none>              bf747efa0e2f        4 weeks ago         0 B
<none>              <none>              980fe10e5736        12 weeks ago        101.4 MB
<none>              <none>              dea752e4e117        12 weeks ago        101.4 MB
<none>              <none>              511136ea3c5a        8 months ago        0 B

This will display untagged images, that are the leaves of the images tree (not intermediary layers). These images occur when a new build of an image takes the repo:tag away from the IMAGE ID, leaving it untagged. A warning will be issued if trying to remove an image when a container is presently using it. By having this flag it allows for batch cleanup.

Ready for use by docker rmi ..., like:

$ sudo docker rmi $(sudo docker images -f "dangling=true" -q)

8abc22fbb042
48e5f45168b9
bf747efa0e2f
980fe10e5736
dea752e4e117
511136ea3c5a

NOTE: Docker will warn you if any containers exist that are using these untagged images.

import

Usage: docker import URL|- [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]

Create an empty filesystem image and import the contents of the tarball (.tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .bzip, .tar.xz, .txz) into it, then optionally tag it.

URLs must start with http and point to a single file archive (.tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .bzip, .tar.xz, or .txz) containing a root filesystem. If you would like to import from a local directory or archive, you can use the - parameter to take the data from STDIN.

Examples

Import from a remote location:

This will create a new untagged image.

$ sudo docker import http://example.com/exampleimage.tgz

Import from a local file:

Import to docker via pipe and STDIN.

$ cat exampleimage.tgz | sudo docker import - exampleimagelocal:new

Import from a local directory:

$ sudo tar -c . | sudo docker import - exampleimagedir

Note the sudo in this example – you must preserve the ownership of the files (especially root ownership) during the archiving with tar. If you are not root (or the sudo command) when you tar, then the ownerships might not get preserved.

info

Usage: docker info

Display system-wide information

For example:

$ sudo docker -D info
Containers: 14
Images: 52
Storage Driver: btrfs
Execution Driver: native-0.2
Kernel Version: 3.13.0-24-generic
Operating System: Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
Debug mode (server): false
Debug mode (client): true
Fds: 10
Goroutines: 9
EventsListeners: 0
Init Path: /usr/bin/docker
Username: svendowideit
Registry: [https://index.docker.io/v1/]

The global -D option tells all docker comands to output debug information.

When sending issue reports, please use docker version and docker -D info to ensure we know how your setup is configured.

inspect

Usage: docker inspect CONTAINER|IMAGE [CONTAINER|IMAGE...]

Return low-level information on a container or image

  -f, --format=""    Format the output using the given go template.

By default, this will render all results in a JSON array. If a format is specified, the given template will be executed for each result.

Go's text/template package describes all the details of the format.

Examples

Get an instance'sIP Address:

For the most part, you can pick out any field from the JSON in a fairly straightforward manner.

$ sudo docker inspect --format='{{.NetworkSettings.IPAddress}}' $INSTANCE_ID

List All Port Bindings:

One can loop over arrays and maps in the results to produce simple text output:

$ sudo docker inspect --format='{{range $p, $conf := .NetworkSettings.Ports}} {{$p}} -> {{(index $conf 0).HostPort}} {{end}}' $INSTANCE_ID

Find a Specific Port Mapping:

The .Field syntax doesn't work when the field name begins with a number, but the template language's index function does. The .NetworkSettings.Ports section contains a map of the internal port mappings to a list of external address/port objects, so to grab just the numeric public port, you use index to find the specific port map, and then index 0 contains first object inside of that. Then we ask for the HostPort field to get the public address.

$ sudo docker inspect --format='{{(index (index .NetworkSettings.Ports "8787/tcp") 0).HostPort}}' $INSTANCE_ID

Get config:

The .Field syntax doesn't work when the field contains JSON data, but the template language's custom json function does. The .config section contains complex json object, so to grab it as JSON, you use json to convert config object into JSON

$ sudo docker inspect --format='{{json .config}}' $INSTANCE_ID

kill

Usage: docker kill [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Kill a running container using SIGKILL or a specified signal

  -s, --signal="KILL"    Signal to send to the container

The main process inside the container will be sent SIGKILL, or any signal specified with option --signal.

load

Usage: docker load

Load an image from a tar archive on STDIN

  -i, --input=""     Read from a tar archive file, instead of STDIN

Loads a tarred repository from a file or the standard input stream. Restores both images and tags.

$ sudo docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
$ sudo docker load < busybox.tar
$ sudo docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
busybox             latest              769b9341d937        7 weeks ago         2.489 MB
$ sudo docker load --input fedora.tar
$ sudo docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
busybox             latest              769b9341d937        7 weeks ago         2.489 MB
fedora              rawhide             0d20aec6529d        7 weeks ago         387 MB
fedora              20                  58394af37342        7 weeks ago         385.5 MB
fedora              heisenbug           58394af37342        7 weeks ago         385.5 MB
fedora              latest              58394af37342        7 weeks ago         385.5 MB

login

Usage: docker login [OPTIONS] [SERVER]

Register or log in to a Docker registry server, if no server is specified "https://index.docker.io/v1/" is the default.

  -e, --email=""       Email
  -p, --password=""    Password
  -u, --username=""    Username

If you want to login to a self-hosted registry you can specify this by adding the server name.

example:
$ docker login localhost:8080

logout

Usage: docker logout [SERVER]

Log out from a Docker registry, if no server is specified "https://index.docker.io/v1/" is the default.

For example:

$ docker logout localhost:8080

logs

Usage: docker logs CONTAINER

Fetch the logs of a container

  -f, --follow=false        Follow log output
  -t, --timestamps=false    Show timestamps
  --tail="all"              Output the specified number of lines at the end of logs (defaults to all logs)

The docker logs command batch-retrieves logs present at the time of execution.

The docker logs --follow command will continue streaming the new output from the container's STDOUT and STDERR.

Passing a negative number or a non-integer to --tail is invalid and the value is set to all in that case. This behavior may change in the future.

The docker logs --timestamp commands will add an RFC3339Nano timestamp, for example 2014-05-10T17:42:14.999999999Z07:00, to each log entry.

port

Usage: docker port CONTAINER PRIVATE_PORT

Lookup the public-facing port that is NAT-ed to PRIVATE_PORT

pause

Usage: docker pause CONTAINER

Pause all processes within a container

The docker pause command uses the cgroups freezer to suspend all processes in a container. Traditionally when suspending a process the SIGSTOP signal is used, which is observable by the process being suspended. With the cgroups freezer the process is unaware, and unable to capture, that it is being suspended, and subsequently resumed.

See the [cgroups freezer documentation] (https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/cgroups/freezer-subsystem.txt) for further details.

ps

Usage: docker ps [OPTIONS]

List containers

  -a, --all=false       Show all containers. Only running containers are shown by default.
  --before=""           Show only container created before Id or Name, include non-running ones.
  -f, --filter=[]       Provide filter values. Valid filters:
                          exited=<int> - containers with exit code of <int>
  -l, --latest=false    Show only the latest created container, include non-running ones.
  -n=-1                 Show n last created containers, include non-running ones.
  --no-trunc=false      Don't truncate output
  -q, --quiet=false     Only display numeric IDs
  -s, --size=false      Display sizes
  --since=""            Show only containers created since Id or Name, include non-running ones.

Running docker ps showing 2 linked containers.

$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                        COMMAND                CREATED              STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
4c01db0b339c        ubuntu:12.04                 bash                   17 seconds ago       Up 16 seconds                           webapp
d7886598dbe2        crosbymichael/redis:latest   /redis-server --dir    33 minutes ago       Up 33 minutes       6379/tcp            redis,webapp/db

docker ps will show only running containers by default. To see all containers: docker ps -a

Filtering

The filtering flag (-f or --filter) format is a "key=value" pair. If there is more than one filter, then pass multiple flags (e.g. --filter "foo=bar" --filter "bif=baz")

Current filters: * exited (int - the code of exited containers. Only useful with '--all')

Successfully exited containers

$ sudo docker ps -a --filter 'exited=0'
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE             COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS                   PORTS                      NAMES
ea09c3c82f6e        registry:latest   /srv/run.sh            2 weeks ago         Exited (0) 2 weeks ago   127.0.0.1:5000->5000/tcp   desperate_leakey
106ea823fe4e        fedora:latest     /bin/sh -c 'bash -l'   2 weeks ago         Exited (0) 2 weeks ago                              determined_albattani
48ee228c9464        fedora:20         bash                   2 weeks ago         Exited (0) 2 weeks ago                              tender_torvalds

This shows all the containers that have exited with status of '0'

pull

Usage: docker pull NAME[:TAG]

Pull an image or a repository from the registry

Most of your images will be created on top of a base image from the Docker Hub registry.

Docker Hub contains many pre-built images that you can pull and try without needing to define and configure your own.

It is also possible to manually specify the path of a registry to pull from. For example, if you have set up a local registry, you can specify its path to pull from it. A repository path is similar to a URL, but does not contain a protocol specifier (https://, for example).

To download a particular image, or set of images (i.e., a repository), use docker pull:

$ docker pull debian
# will pull all the images in the debian repository
$ docker pull debian:testing
# will pull only the image named debian:testing and any intermediate layers
# it is based on. (Typically the empty `scratch` image, a MAINTAINERs layer,
# and the un-tarred base).
$ docker pull registry.hub.docker.com/debian
# manually specifies the path to the default Docker registry. This could
# be replaced with the path to a local registry to pull from another source.

push

Usage: docker push NAME[:TAG]

Push an image or a repository to the registry

Use docker push to share your images to the Docker Hub registry or to a self-hosted one.

restart

Usage: docker restart [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Restart a running container

  -t, --time=10      Number of seconds to try to stop for before killing the container. Once killed it will then be restarted. Default is 10 seconds.

rm

Usage: docker rm [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Remove one or more containers

  -f, --force=false      Force the removal of a running container (uses SIGKILL)
  -l, --link=false       Remove the specified link and not the underlying container
  -v, --volumes=false    Remove the volumes associated with the container

Known Issues (rm)

  • Issue 197 indicates that docker kill may leave directories behind and make it difficult to remove the container.

Examples:

$ sudo docker rm /redis
/redis

This will remove the container referenced under the link /redis.

$ sudo docker rm --link /webapp/redis
/webapp/redis

This will remove the underlying link between /webapp and the /redis containers removing all network communication.

$ sudo docker rm --force redis
redis

The main process inside the container referenced under the link /redis will receive SIGKILL, then the container will be removed.

This command will delete all stopped containers. The command docker ps -a -q will return all existing container IDs and pass them to the rm command which will delete them. Any running containers will not be deleted.

rmi

Usage: docker rmi IMAGE [IMAGE...]

Remove one or more images

  -f, --force=false    Force removal of the image
  --no-prune=false     Do not delete untagged parents

Removing tagged images

Images can be removed either by their short or long ID`s, or their image names. If an image has more than one name, each of them needs to be removed before the image is removed.

$ sudo docker images
REPOSITORY                TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
test1                     latest              fd484f19954f        23 seconds ago      7 B (virtual 4.964 MB)
test                      latest              fd484f19954f        23 seconds ago      7 B (virtual 4.964 MB)
test2                     latest              fd484f19954f        23 seconds ago      7 B (virtual 4.964 MB)

$ sudo docker rmi fd484f19954f
Error: Conflict, cannot delete image fd484f19954f because it is tagged in multiple repositories
2013/12/11 05:47:16 Error: failed to remove one or more images

$ sudo docker rmi test1
Untagged: fd484f19954f4920da7ff372b5067f5b7ddb2fd3830cecd17b96ea9e286ba5b8
$ sudo docker rmi test2
Untagged: fd484f19954f4920da7ff372b5067f5b7ddb2fd3830cecd17b96ea9e286ba5b8

$ sudo docker images
REPOSITORY                TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
test                      latest              fd484f19954f        23 seconds ago      7 B (virtual 4.964 MB)
$ sudo docker rmi test
Untagged: fd484f19954f4920da7ff372b5067f5b7ddb2fd3830cecd17b96ea9e286ba5b8
Deleted: fd484f19954f4920da7ff372b5067f5b7ddb2fd3830cecd17b96ea9e286ba5b8

run

Usage: docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG...]

Run a command in a new container

  -a, --attach=[]            Attach to STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR.
  -c, --cpu-shares=0         CPU shares (relative weight)
  --cap-add=[]               Add Linux capabilities
  --cap-drop=[]              Drop Linux capabilities
  --cidfile=""               Write the container ID to the file
  --cpuset=""                CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
  -d, --detach=false         Detached mode: run container in the background and print new container ID
  --device=[]                Add a host device to the container (e.g. --device=/dev/sdc:/dev/xvdc)
  --dns=[]                   Set custom DNS servers
  --dns-search=[]            Set custom DNS search domains
  -e, --env=[]               Set environment variables
  --entrypoint=""            Overwrite the default ENTRYPOINT of the image
  --env-file=[]              Read in a line delimited file of environment variables
  --expose=[]                Expose a port from the container without publishing it to your host
  -h, --hostname=""          Container host name
  -i, --interactive=false    Keep STDIN open even if not attached
  --link=[]                  Add link to another container in the form of name:alias
  --lxc-conf=[]              (lxc exec-driver only) Add custom lxc options --lxc-conf="lxc.cgroup.cpuset.cpus = 0,1"
  -m, --memory=""            Memory limit (format: <number><optional unit>, where unit = b, k, m or g)
  --name=""                  Assign a name to the container
  --net="bridge"             Set the Network mode for the container
                               'bridge': creates a new network stack for the container on the docker bridge
                               'none': no networking for this container
                               'container:<name|id>': reuses another container network stack
                               'host': use the host network stack inside the container.  Note: the host mode gives the container full access to local system services such as D-bus and is therefore considered insecure.
  -P, --publish-all=false    Publish all exposed ports to the host interfaces
  -p, --publish=[]           Publish a container's port to the host
                               format: ip:hostPort:containerPort | ip::containerPort | hostPort:containerPort | containerPort
                               (use 'docker port' to see the actual mapping)
  --privileged=false         Give extended privileges to this container
  --restart=""               Restart policy to apply when a container exits (no, on-failure[:max-retry], always)
  --rm=false                 Automatically remove the container when it exits (incompatible with -d)
  --sig-proxy=true           Proxy received signals to the process (even in non-TTY mode). SIGCHLD, SIGSTOP, and SIGKILL are not proxied.
  -t, --tty=false            Allocate a pseudo-TTY
  -u, --user=""              Username or UID
  -v, --volume=[]            Bind mount a volume (e.g., from the host: -v /host:/container, from Docker: -v /container)
  --volumes-from=[]          Mount volumes from the specified container(s)
  -w, --workdir=""           Working directory inside the container

The docker run command first creates a writeable container layer over the specified image, and then starts it using the specified command. That is, docker run is equivalent to the API /containers/create then /containers/(id)/start. A stopped container can be restarted with all its previous changes intact using docker start. See docker ps -a to view a list of all containers.

The docker run command can be used in combination with docker commit to change the command that a container runs.

See the Docker User Guide for more detailed information about the --expose, -p, -P and --link parameters, and linking containers.

Known Issues (run –volumes-from)

  • Issue 2702: "lxc-start: Permission denied - failed to mount" could indicate a permissions problem with AppArmor. Please see the issue for a workaround.

Examples:

$ sudo docker run --cidfile /tmp/docker_test.cid ubuntu echo "test"

This will create a container and print test to the console. The cidfile flag makes Docker attempt to create a new file and write the container ID to it. If the file exists already, Docker will return an error. Docker will close this file when docker run exits.

$ sudo docker run -t -i --rm ubuntu bash
root@bc338942ef20:/# mount -t tmpfs none /mnt
mount: permission denied

This will not work, because by default, most potentially dangerous kernel capabilities are dropped; including cap_sys_admin (which is required to mount filesystems). However, the --privileged flag will allow it to run:

$ sudo docker run --privileged ubuntu bash
root@50e3f57e16e6:/# mount -t tmpfs none /mnt
root@50e3f57e16e6:/# df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
none            1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /mnt

The --privileged flag gives all capabilities to the container, and it also lifts all the limitations enforced by the device cgroup controller. In other words, the container can then do almost everything that the host can do. This flag exists to allow special use-cases, like running Docker within Docker.

$ sudo docker  run -w /path/to/dir/ -i -t  ubuntu pwd

The -w lets the command being executed inside directory given, here /path/to/dir/. If the path does not exists it is created inside the container.

$ sudo docker  run  -v `pwd`:`pwd` -w `pwd` -i -t  ubuntu pwd

The -v flag mounts the current working directory into the container. The -w lets the command being executed inside the current working directory, by changing into the directory to the value returned by pwd. So this combination executes the command using the container, but inside the current working directory.

$ sudo docker run -v /doesnt/exist:/foo -w /foo -i -t ubuntu bash

When the host directory of a bind-mounted volume doesn't exist, Docker will automatically create this directory on the host for you. In the example above, Docker will create the /doesnt/exist folder before starting your container.

$ sudo docker run -t -i -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock -v ./static-docker:/usr/bin/docker busybox sh

By bind-mounting the docker unix socket and statically linked docker binary (such as that provided by https://get.docker.io), you give the container the full access to create and manipulate the host's docker daemon.

$ sudo docker run -p 127.0.0.1:80:8080 ubuntu bash

This binds port 8080 of the container to port 80 on 127.0.0.1 of the host machine. The Docker User Guide explains in detail how to manipulate ports in Docker.

$ sudo docker run --expose 80 ubuntu bash

This exposes port 80 of the container for use within a link without publishing the port to the host system's interfaces. The Docker User Guide explains in detail how to manipulate ports in Docker.

$ sudo docker run -e MYVAR1 --env MYVAR2=foo --env-file ./env.list ubuntu bash

This sets environmental variables in the container. For illustration all three flags are shown here. Where -e, --env take an environment variable and value, or if no "=" is provided, then that variable's current value is passed through (i.e. $MYVAR1 from the host is set to $MYVAR1 in the container). All three flags, -e, --env and --env-file can be repeated.

Regardless of the order of these three flags, the --env-file are processed first, and then -e, --env flags. This way, the -e or --env will override variables as needed.

$ cat ./env.list
TEST_FOO=BAR
$ sudo docker run --env TEST_FOO="This is a test" --env-file ./env.list busybox env | grep TEST_FOO
TEST_FOO=This is a test

The --env-file flag takes a filename as an argument and expects each line to be in the VAR=VAL format, mimicking the argument passed to --env. Comment lines need only be prefixed with #

An example of a file passed with --env-file

$ cat ./env.list
TEST_FOO=BAR

# this is a comment
TEST_APP_DEST_HOST=10.10.0.127
TEST_APP_DEST_PORT=8888

# pass through this variable from the caller
TEST_PASSTHROUGH
$ sudo TEST_PASSTHROUGH=howdy docker run --env-file ./env.list busybox env
HOME=/
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin
HOSTNAME=5198e0745561
TEST_FOO=BAR
TEST_APP_DEST_HOST=10.10.0.127
TEST_APP_DEST_PORT=8888
TEST_PASSTHROUGH=howdy

$ sudo docker run --name console -t -i ubuntu bash

This will create and run a new container with the container name being console.

$ sudo docker run --link /redis:redis --name console ubuntu bash

The --link flag will link the container named /redis into the newly created container with the alias redis. The new container can access the network and environment of the redis container via environment variables. The --name flag will assign the name console to the newly created container.

$ sudo docker run --volumes-from 777f7dc92da7 --volumes-from ba8c0c54f0f2:ro -i -t ubuntu pwd

The --volumes-from flag mounts all the defined volumes from the referenced containers. Containers can be specified by repetitions of the --volumes-from argument. The container ID may be optionally suffixed with :ro or :rw to mount the volumes in read-only or read-write mode, respectively. By default, the volumes are mounted in the same mode (read write or read only) as the reference container.

The -a flag tells docker run to bind to the container's STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR. This makes it possible to manipulate the output and input as needed.

$ echo "test" | sudo docker run -i -a stdin ubuntu cat -

This pipes data into a container and prints the container's ID by attaching only to the container's STDIN.

$ sudo docker run -a stderr ubuntu echo test

This isn't going to print anything unless there's an error because we've only attached to the STDERR of the container. The container's logs still store what's been written to STDERR and STDOUT.

$ cat somefile | sudo docker run -i -a stdin mybuilder dobuild

This is how piping a file into a container could be done for a build. The container's ID will be printed after the build is done and the build logs could be retrieved using docker logs. This is useful if you need to pipe a file or something else into a container and retrieve the container's ID once the container has finished running.

$ sudo docker run --device=/dev/sdc:/dev/xvdc --device=/dev/sdd --device=/dev/zero:/dev/nulo -i -t ubuntu ls -l /dev/{xvdc,sdd,nulo} brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 2 Feb 9 16:05 /dev/xvdc brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 3 Feb 9 16:05 /dev/sdd crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 5 Feb 9 16:05 /dev/nulo

It is often necessary to directly expose devices to a container. --device option enables that. For example, a specific block storage device or loop device or audio device can be added to an otherwise unprivileged container (without the --privileged flag) and have the application directly access it.

Security note:

--device cannot be safely used with ephemeral devices. Block devices that may be removed should not be added to untrusted containers with --device!

A complete example:

$ sudo docker run -d --name static static-web-files sh
$ sudo docker run -d --expose=8098 --name riak riakserver
$ sudo docker run -d -m 100m -e DEVELOPMENT=1 -e BRANCH=example-code -v $(pwd):/app/bin:ro --name app appserver
$ sudo docker run -d -p 1443:443 --dns=10.0.0.1 --dns-search=dev.org -v /var/log/httpd --volumes-from static --link riak --link app -h www.sven.dev.org --name web webserver
$ sudo docker run -t -i --rm --volumes-from web -w /var/log/httpd busybox tail -f access.log

This example shows 5 containers that might be set up to test a web application change:

  1. Start a pre-prepared volume image static-web-files (in the background) that has CSS, image and static HTML in it, (with a VOLUME instruction in the Dockerfile to allow the web server to use those files);
  2. Start a pre-prepared riakserver image, give the container name riak and expose port 8098 to any containers that link to it;
  3. Start the appserver image, restricting its memory usage to 100MB, setting two environment variables DEVELOPMENT and BRANCH and bind-mounting the current directory ($(pwd)) in the container in read-only mode as /app/bin;
  4. Start the webserver, mapping port 443 in the container to port 1443 on the Docker server, setting the DNS server to 10.0.0.1 and DNS search domain to dev.org, creating a volume to put the log files into (so we can access it from another container), then importing the files from the volume exposed by the static container, and linking to all exposed ports from riak and app. Lastly, we set the hostname to web.sven.dev.org so its consistent with the pre-generated SSL certificate;
  5. Finally, we create a container that runs tail -f access.log using the logs volume from the web container, setting the workdir to /var/log/httpd. The --rm option means that when the container exits, the container's layer is removed.

Restart Policies

Using the --restart flag on Docker run you can specify a restart policy for how a container should or should not be restarted on exit.

no - Do not restart the container when it exits.

on-failure - Restart the container only if it exits with a non zero exit status.

always - Always restart the container reguardless of the exit status.

You can also specify the maximum amount of times Docker will try to restart the container when using the on-failure policy. The default is that Docker will try forever to restart the container.

$ sudo docker run --restart=always redis

This will run the redis container with a restart policy of always so that if the container exits, Docker will restart it.

$ sudo docker run --restart=on-failure:10 redis

This will run the redis container with a restart policy of on-failure and a maximum restart count of 10. If the redis container exits with a non-zero exit status more than 10 times in a row Docker will abort trying to restart the container. Providing a maximum restart limit is only valid for the on-failure policy.

save

Usage: docker save IMAGE

Save an image to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)

  -o, --output=""    Write to an file, instead of STDOUT

Produces a tarred repository to the standard output stream. Contains all parent layers, and all tags + versions, or specified repo:tag.

It is used to create a backup that can then be used with docker load

$ sudo docker save busybox > busybox.tar
$ ls -sh busybox.tar
2.7M busybox.tar
$ sudo docker save --output busybox.tar busybox
$ ls -sh busybox.tar
2.7M busybox.tar
$ sudo docker save -o fedora-all.tar fedora
$ sudo docker save -o fedora-latest.tar fedora:latest

Search Docker Hub for images

Usage: docker search TERM

Search the Docker Hub for images

  --automated=false    Only show automated builds
  --no-trunc=false     Don't truncate output
  -s, --stars=0        Only displays with at least x stars

See Find Public Images on Docker Hub for more details on finding shared images from the command line.

start

Usage: docker start CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Restart a stopped container

  -a, --attach=false         Attach container's STDOUT and STDERR and forward all signals to the process
  -i, --interactive=false    Attach container's STDIN

When run on a container that has already been started, takes no action and succeeds unconditionally.

stop

Usage: docker stop [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Stop a running container by sending SIGTERM and then SIGKILL after a grace period

  -t, --time=10      Number of seconds to wait for the container to stop before killing it. Default is 10 seconds.

The main process inside the container will receive SIGTERM, and after a grace period, SIGKILL

tag

Usage: docker tag [OPTIONS] IMAGE[:TAG] [REGISTRYHOST/][USERNAME/]NAME[:TAG]

Tag an image into a repository

  -f, --force=false    Force

You can group your images together using names and tags, and then upload them to Share Images via Repositories.

top

Usage: docker top CONTAINER [ps OPTIONS]

Display the running processes of a container

unpause

Usage: docker unpause CONTAINER

Unpause all processes within a container

The docker unpause command uses the cgroups freezer to un-suspend all processes in a container.

See the [cgroups freezer documentation] (https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/cgroups/freezer-subsystem.txt) for further details.

version

Usage: docker version

Show the Docker version information.

Show the Docker version, API version, Git commit, and Go version of both Docker client and daemon.

wait

Usage: docker wait CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Block until a container stops, then print its exit code.