Build context

The docker build or docker buildx build commands build Docker images from a Dockerfile and a “context”.

A build’s context is the set of files located at the PATH or URL specified as the positional argument to the build command:

$ docker build [OPTIONS] PATH | URL | -
                         ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The build process can refer to any of the files in the context. For example, your build can use a COPY instruction to reference a file in the context or a RUN --mount=type=bind instruction for better performance with BuildKit. The build context is processed recursively. So, a PATH includes any subdirectories and the URL includes the repository and its submodules.

PATH context

This example shows a build command that uses the current directory (.) as a build context:

$ docker build .
...
#16 [internal] load build context
#16 sha256:23ca2f94460dcbaf5b3c3edbaaa933281a4e0ea3d92fe295193e4df44dc68f85
#16 transferring context: 13.16MB 2.2s done
...

With the following Dockerfile:

FROM busybox
WORKDIR /src
COPY foo .

And this directory structure:

.
├── Dockerfile
├── bar
├── foo
└── node_modules

The legacy builder sends the entire directory to the daemon, including bar and node_modules directories, even though the Dockerfile does not use them. When using BuildKit, the client only sends the files required by the COPY instructions, in this case foo.

In some cases you may want to send the entire context:

FROM busybox
WORKDIR /src
COPY . .

You can use a .dockerignore file to exclude some files or directories from being sent:

# .dockerignore
node_modules
bar

Warning

Avoid using your root directory, /, as the PATH for your build context, as it causes the build to transfer the entire contents of your hard drive to the daemon.

URL context

The URL parameter can refer to three kinds of resources:

Git repositories

When the URL parameter points to the location of a Git repository, the repository acts as the build context. The builder recursively pulls the repository and its submodules. A shallow clone is performed and therefore pulls down just the latest commits, not the entire history. A repository is first pulled into a temporary directory on your host. After that succeeds, the directory is sent to the daemon as the context. Local copy gives you the ability to access private repositories using local user credentials, VPN’s, and so forth.

Note

If the URL parameter contains a fragment the system will recursively clone the repository and its submodules using a git clone --recursive command.

Git URLs accept a context configuration parameter in the form of a URL fragment, separated by a colon (:). The first part represents the reference that Git will check out, and can be either a branch, a tag, or a remote reference. The second part represents a subdirectory inside the repository that will be used as a build context.

For example, run this command to use a directory called docker in the branch container:

$ docker build https://github.com/user/myrepo.git#container:docker

The following table represents all the valid suffixes with their build contexts:

Build Syntax Suffix Commit Used Build Context Used
myrepo.git refs/heads/master /
myrepo.git#mytag refs/tags/mytag /
myrepo.git#mybranch refs/heads/mybranch /
myrepo.git#pull/42/head refs/pull/42/head /
myrepo.git#:myfolder refs/heads/master /myfolder
myrepo.git#master:myfolder refs/heads/master /myfolder
myrepo.git#mytag:myfolder refs/tags/mytag /myfolder
myrepo.git#mybranch:myfolder refs/heads/mybranch /myfolder

By default .git directory is not kept on Git checkouts. You can set the BuildKit built-in arg BUILDKIT_CONTEXT_KEEP_GIT_DIR=1 to keep it. It can be useful to keep it around if you want to retrieve Git information during your build:

# syntax=docker/dockerfile:1
FROM alpine
WORKDIR /src
RUN --mount=target=. \
  make REVISION=$(git rev-parse HEAD) build
$ docker build --build-arg BUILDKIT_CONTEXT_KEEP_GIT_DIR=1 https://github.com/user/myrepo.git#main

Tarball contexts

If you pass a URL to a remote tarball, the URL itself is sent to the daemon:

$ docker build http://server/context.tar.gz
#1 [internal] load remote build context
#1 DONE 0.2s

#2 copy /context /
#2 DONE 0.1s
...

The download operation will be performed on the host the daemon is running on, which is not necessarily the same host from which the build command is being issued. The daemon will fetch context.tar.gz and use it as the build context. Tarball contexts must be tar archives conforming to the standard tar UNIX format and can be compressed with any one of the xz, bzip2, gzip or identity (no compression) formats.

Text files

Instead of specifying a context, you can pass a single Dockerfile in the URL or pipe the file in via STDIN. To pipe a Dockerfile from STDIN:

$ docker build - < Dockerfile

With Powershell on Windows, you can run:

Get-Content Dockerfile | docker build -

If you use STDIN or specify a URL pointing to a plain text file, the system places the contents into a file called Dockerfile, and any -f, --file option is ignored. In this scenario, there is no context.

The following example builds an image using a Dockerfile that is passed through stdin. No files are sent as build context to the daemon.

docker build -t myimage:latest -<<EOF
FROM busybox
RUN echo "hello world"
EOF

Omitting the build context can be useful in situations where your Dockerfile does not require files to be copied into the image, and improves the build-speed, as no files are sent to the daemon.