User defined HCL functions

Estimated reading time: 8 minutes

Using interpolation to tag an image with the git sha

As shown in the File definition page, bake supports variable blocks which are assigned to matching environment variables or default values:

# docker-bake.hcl
variable "TAG" {
  default = "latest"
}

group "default" {
  targets = ["webapp"]
}

target "webapp" {
  tags = ["docker.io/username/webapp:${TAG}"]
}

alternatively, in json format:

{
  "variable": {
    "TAG": {
      "default": "latest"
    }
  },
  "group": {
    "default": {
      "targets": ["webapp"]
    }
  },
  "target": {
    "webapp": {
      "tags": ["docker.io/username/webapp:${TAG}"]
    }
  }
}
$ docker buildx bake --print webapp
{
  "group": {
    "default": {
      "targets": [
        "webapp"
      ]
    }
  },
  "target": {
    "webapp": {
      "context": ".",
      "dockerfile": "Dockerfile",
      "tags": [
        "docker.io/username/webapp:latest"
      ]
    }
  }
}
$ TAG=$(git rev-parse --short HEAD) docker buildx bake --print webapp
{
  "group": {
    "default": {
      "targets": [
        "webapp"
      ]
    }
  },
  "target": {
    "webapp": {
      "context": ".",
      "dockerfile": "Dockerfile",
      "tags": [
        "docker.io/username/webapp:985e9e9"
      ]
    }
  }
}

Using the add function

You can use go-cty stdlib functions. Here we are using the add function.

# docker-bake.hcl
variable "TAG" {
  default = "latest"
}

group "default" {
  targets = ["webapp"]
}

target "webapp" {
  args = {
    buildno = "${add(123, 1)}"
  }
}
$ docker buildx bake --print webapp
{
  "group": {
    "default": {
      "targets": [
        "webapp"
      ]
    }
  },
  "target": {
    "webapp": {
      "context": ".",
      "dockerfile": "Dockerfile",
      "args": {
        "buildno": "124"
      }
    }
  }
}

Defining an increment function

It also supports user defined functions. The following example defines a simple an increment function.

# docker-bake.hcl
function "increment" {
  params = [number]
  result = number + 1
}

group "default" {
  targets = ["webapp"]
}

target "webapp" {
  args = {
    buildno = "${increment(123)}"
  }
}
$ docker buildx bake --print webapp
{
  "group": {
    "default": {
      "targets": [
        "webapp"
      ]
    }
  },
  "target": {
    "webapp": {
      "context": ".",
      "dockerfile": "Dockerfile",
      "args": {
        "buildno": "124"
      }
    }
  }
}

Only adding tags if a variable is not empty using an notequal

Here we are using the conditional notequal function which is just for symmetry with the equal one.

# docker-bake.hcl
variable "TAG" {default="" }

group "default" {
  targets = [
    "webapp",
  ]
}

target "webapp" {
  context="."
  dockerfile="Dockerfile"
  tags = [
    "my-image:latest",
    notequal("",TAG) ? "my-image:${TAG}": "",
  ]
}
$ docker buildx bake --print webapp
{
  "group": {
    "default": {
      "targets": [
        "webapp"
      ]
    }
  },
  "target": {
    "webapp": {
      "context": ".",
      "dockerfile": "Dockerfile",
      "tags": [
        "my-image:latest"
      ]
    }
  }
}

Using variables in functions

You can refer variables to other variables like the target blocks can. Stdlib functions can also be called but user functions can’t at the moment.

# docker-bake.hcl
variable "REPO" {
  default = "user/repo"
}

function "tag" {
  params = [tag]
  result = ["${REPO}:${tag}"]
}

target "webapp" {
  tags = tag("v1")
}
$ docker buildx bake --print webapp
{
  "group": {
    "default": {
      "targets": [
        "webapp"
      ]
    }
  },
  "target": {
    "webapp": {
      "context": ".",
      "dockerfile": "Dockerfile",
      "tags": [
        "user/repo:v1"
      ]
    }
  }
}

Using typed variables

Non-string variables are also accepted. The value passed with env is parsed into suitable type first.

# docker-bake.hcl
variable "FOO" {
  default = 3
}

variable "IS_FOO" {
  default = true
}

target "app" {
  args = {
    v1 = FOO > 5 ? "higher" : "lower" 
    v2 = IS_FOO ? "yes" : "no"
  }
}
$ docker buildx bake --print app
{
  "group": {
    "default": {
      "targets": [
        "app"
      ]
    }
  },
  "target": {
    "app": {
      "context": ".",
      "dockerfile": "Dockerfile",
      "args": {
        "v1": "lower",
        "v2": "yes"
      }
    }
  }
}
build, buildx, bake, buildkit, hcl