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Create machines on Exoscale.

Get your API key and API secret key from API details and pass them to machine create with the --exoscale-api-key and --exoscale-api-secret-key options.


$ docker-machine create --driver exoscale \
    --exoscale-api-key=API \
    --exoscale-api-secret-key=SECRET \

If you encounter any troubles, activate the debug mode with docker-machine --debug create ....


  • --exoscale-affinity-group: Anti-affinity group the machine is started in.
  • --exoscale-api-key: required Your API key;
  • --exoscale-api-secret-key: required Your API secret key;
  • --exoscale-availability-zone: Exoscale availability zone (ch-dk-2, at-vie-1, de-fra-1, …);
  • --exoscale-disk-size: Disk size for the host in GiB (at least 10);
  • --exoscale-image: Image template, for example ubuntu-16.04, also known as Linux Ubuntu 16.04 LTS 64-bit, see below);
  • --exoscale-instance-profile: Instance profile (Small, Medium, Large, …);
  • --exoscale-security-group: Security group. It is created if it doesn’t exist;
  • --exoscale-ssh-key: Path to the SSH user private key. A new one is created if left empty;
  • --exoscale-ssh-user: SSH username to connect, such as ubuntu, see below);
  • --exoscale-url: Your API endpoint;
  • --exoscale-userdata: Path to file containing user data for cloud-init;

Environment variables and default values

CLI optionEnvironment variableDefault
--exoscale-imageEXOSCALE_IMAGELinux Ubuntu 16.04 LTS 64-bit

NB: the instance profile, image, and availability zone are case insensitive.

Image template name

The VM templates available at Exoscale are listed on the Portal when adding a new instance.

For any Linux template, you may use the shorter name composed only of the name and version, as shown below.

Full nameShort name
Linux Debian 8 64-bitdebian-8
Linux Ubuntu 16.04 LTS 64-bitubuntu-16.04
Linux CentOS 7.3 64-bitcentos-7.3
Linux CoreOS stable 1298 64-bitcoreos-stable-1298

NB: Docker doesn’t work for non-Linux machines like OpenBSD or Windows Server.

SSH Username

The Exoscale driver does an educated guess to pick the correct default SSH user. If left empty, it picks a suitable one following those rules:

  • centos for CentOS;
  • core for Linux CoreOS (aka Container Linux);
  • debian for Debian;
  • ubuntu for Ubuntu;
  • fedora for Fedora;
  • cloud-user for Red Hat;
  • otherwise, root.

Custom security group

If a custom security group is provided, you need to ensure that you allow TCP ports 22 and 2376 in an ingress rule.

Moreover, if you want to use Docker Swarm, also add TCP port 2377, UDP/TCP on 7946, and UDP on 4789.

Debian 9

The default storage driver may fail on Debian, specifying overlay2 should resolve this issue.

$ docker-machine create --engine-storage-driver overlay2 ...`

More than 8 docker machines?

There is a limit to the number of machines that an anti-affinity group can have. This can be worked around by specifying an additional anti-affinity group using --exoscale-affinity-group=docker-machineX

machine, exoscale, driver